Selected results from thefinite element analyses can be summarised as follows:
- Loading: In state 7 the finite element analysis indicates irreversible deformations due to the variable load q . According to DIN 1054:2005-01, the variable load should therefore be taken into account when checking the serviceability of the structure in the finite element model.
- Earth pressure distribution: As expected, at the serviceability limit state the passive earth pressure is lower than that given by the calculations in example owing to the flexibility of the retaining wall. The active earth pressure is greater in thefinite element analysis .
- Support at base of wall : The moment distributions calculated confirm that with an em-bedment depth of 4.8 m in the soil, the base of the sheet pile wall is partially fixed.
- Deformations: As expected, the deformations of the sheet pile wall correspond to a flex-ible installation, the anchors yield. The large wall displacement causes corresponding settlement of the ground surface on the land side, a maximum inclination of approx. 1:80 occurs . During the construction phase, the deformations do not represent a problem for quay structures. When in service, the depression caused by the settlement can be compensated for by backfilling so that the area is traf ficable, e.g. for stacking containers.
Other possible issues for this boundary value problem might be the long-term behaviour of the quay structure due to other actions, the change in the water table over time and viscous processes in the stratum of clay with sea-silt. To do this, the finite element model described here would need to be adjusted with respect to the material model and the identification of parameters.