Mitigación del asentamiento de la estructura existente por tablestaca tablestacado paredes cuando licuefacción

La licuefacción durante los terremotos induce el daño de las estructuras existentes como levantamiento o asentamiento, dependiendo del peso de la estructura. Es importante mitigar el daño que ocurre por licuefacción para tomar algunas contramedidas contra el desplazamiento vertical dañino.

Este estudio se enfoca específicamente en contramedidas contra el asentamiento inducido por la licuefacción de las estructuras existentes con las paredes de Tablestaca tablestacado durante los terremotos. Para este propósito, el estudio considera los efectos de los muros de tablestacas sobre la disminución de asentamientos inducidos por licuefacción de estructuras existentes usando las pruebas modelo bajo condiciones normales de gravedad (1 g) que simulan la situación de estructuras existentes fundadas en depósitos de arena.

Los resultados muestran lo siguiente: cuanto más largas son las paredes de tablestacas que se instalan, más se puede reducir el asentamiento de las estructuras. La adaptación combinada de la instalación de paredes de tablestacas con una disminución en el nivel del agua subterránea genera un gran grado de reducción en el asentamiento de las estructuras que con la adaptación de la técnica única de instalación de la pared de tablestacas o desagüe de GWL.

(Este artículo proviene de waseda edit released)

Sheet Piling Solutions

PilePro’s Side-Grip Vibratory Piling Hammer is an excavator mounted vibratory hammer which grips the pile on the side in order to be able to drive sheet piles up to 18m long. This one unit is capable of handling, pitching and driving sheet piles, therefore eliminating the need to manually handle piles or use assisting machinery.

The Vibratory Hammer combined with the excavator is an effective solution for sheet piling on most sites from open areas to confined spaces or limited headroom. An advanced Auto C control system makes operating accurate and simple.

PilePro’s Side-Grip Vibratory Piling Hammer is capable of handling, pitching and driving 400 – 1,200 mm width sheet piles up to 18 m long.

The side-grip clamps make installation efficient having the ability to lift and rotate the pile to the driving location. Secure grips keep the pile under control during driving and the Auto C control system enables fast and accurate piling work.

Generating an impressive 600 kN of vibratory force at 3,000 Hz, the Vibratory Hammer can only be bettered in power by the very largest crawler mounted rigs limited in availability to the bigger mainland cities.

Key features:

  • minimised disturbance to surrounding structures through the use of variable eccentric vibration; effectively eliminating start-up and stopping resonance and potentially damaging vibration.
  • equally able to install and extract piles, and therefore perfect for installation and later removal of temporary works.
  • operates at any angle and therefore capable of installing piles at any rake including horizontally.

The Side-Grips will drive sheet piles in width from 400 to 1200 mm.

PilePro have also invested in sheet piles that are available for hire and use in temporary works to further improve the viability of sheet piling solutions. Our ability to recover piles is unique in Tasmania and allows for the re-use of materials.

(This article comes from PilePro editor released)

Protection of Steel Sheet Pile Bulkhead Using Precast Concrete Veneer

An industrial yard owned by the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is located at the Caven Point peninsula in Jersey City, New Jersey. The yard’s berthing waterfront is built in the form of steel a sheet pile bulkhead. The sheet piling, subject to the aggressive salt water environment, has severely corroded since the time of construction in the early 1970s; however, the degree of corrosion of the steel sheeting varied a great deal over the wall height. The most severe corrosion occurred within the tidal zone with its peak being at the Mean Low Water level (MLW). About 15% of the original steel thickness was left at this level. In other zones, where the sheet piling was either permanently dry or permanently submerged, the remaining steel was 80 to 90% of its original thickness. Structural analysis of the bulkhead showed that the maximum bending moment occurs approximately at the level of mudline, where the section loss of the sheet piling due to corrosion was minimal. At the MLW level, where the sheet piling sustained the maximum corrosion loss, the bending moment, on the contrary, was small and the remaining steel thickness was found sufficient to resist it. Consequently, it was determined that the bulkhead in its existing condition was structurally adequate; hence, the goal of its rehabilitation was merely to stop further corrosion and to preserve the sheet piling in its present condition. Protection of the sheet piling has been designed as 20-cm (8-inch) thick precast concrete panels (veneer) installed in front of the existing wall. The space between the sheet piling and the panels would be filled with plain tremie concrete. To make the concrete panels capable of withstanding the lateral pressure of the wet concrete fill, two measures have been proposed: a) use of the lightweight concrete fill, and b) placement of the concrete fill between the sheet piling and panels in several lifts. Each subsequent lift would be placed after concrete in the previous lift has hardened and thus no longer transmits lateral pressure to the panels.

(This article comes from ASCE Library editor released)

Box Sheet Piling – Steel Structures

Hot-rolled steel sheet piling is more extensively used nowadays in permanent as well as temporary retaining walls. Applications are not only above-ground earth-retaining structures but also composite basement wall construction, urban railway and road cuttings, bridge abutments, river bridge pier caissons, as well as the traditional river and coastal protection works. Economic design is enabled by better knowledge of soil–structure interaction and highly developed design and analysis programmes.

Box piles are particularly suitable for marine structures, such  as jetties and dolphins, where part of the pile shaft is exposed above seabed level and the pile functions as a free-standing column or is connected at the head in clusters of columns.

Box piles are formed by welding two or more sheet pile sections together. Both Larssen and Frodingham steel sheet piles (see section 29.2.3) can be used.They can be introduced into a line of sheet piling at any point where local heavy loads are to be applied, for instance beneath bridge beams, or used separately.They are clutched together with adjacent sheet piles and can be positioned in a sheet pile abutment so that its appearance is unaffected.

Larssen box piles are formed by welding together two sheet pile sections with continuous welds, and Frodingham plated box piles are formed by  continuously welding a plate to a pair of interlocked and intermittently welded sheet piles (see Fig. 29.2).

Special box piles can be formed using other combinations of sheet piles.

20170927Fig. 29.2 Box piles

(This article comes from thecivilbuilders.com editor released)

Pile Driving

The pile driving technique is powered by pneumatic or diesel pile drivers of which the dynamic weight is driven by hydraulics. By pulsating load on top of the sheet pile, the critical frequency is being passed and the sheet pile is driven into the soil. This technique is mainly used for the driving of piles and solid caissons, especially in cohesive soils and fine-grained soils including silts and clays. What pile driver to use, is depending on the soil conditon, working depth and strength of the sheet pile wall. For plastic and composed sheet pile walls, there are special pile drivers on the market with less impact pressure in order not to damage the elements. Pile driving can also be done by a conventional drop hammer, with or without steel framework.

(This article comes from PVE Piling & Vibro Equipment editor released)

Used Sheet Piles

Used sheet piles can provide an economical alternative to new sheet piles. The condition or quality of a used sheet pile is variable. It is determined by the section size, the soil conditions in which they have been previously driven, the number of times they have been used, the equipment used for installation and the care factor of the previous installers. The price of used sheet piles varies in accordance with the used condition. Availability of used sheet piles can also vary so it is worthwhile asking about their availability if they might be a suitable solution for your requirements.

(This article comes from J Steel Australasia editor released)

Sheet Pile Wall

A series of sheet piles driven into the ground side by side, form a continuous vertical wall which is referred to as a sheet pile wall. A sheet pile wall acts as a retaining wall but unlike the RCC or masonry rigid retaining walls, it is light in weight and flexible.

The sheet piles used are of timber, reinforced concrete or steel depending on the provision made for achieving stability. Sheet pile walls are of three types:

1) Cantilever sheet piling

2) Anchored sheet piling

3) Braced sheeting

Sheet pile walls are used in

  1. Light weight construction when the bearing stratum is poor for supporting the heavier RCC or masonry retaining wall.
  2. For temporarily retaining earthfills in some construction activities and
  3. Water front structures.

(This article comes from NPTEL editor released)

Steel sheet pile piling

Steel sheet pile construction to correctly select the “screen” piling method, piling machinery and water segment, so that after the board pile wall has enough rigidity and good waterproof role. And the sheet pile wall straight to meet the requirements of the foundation construction, the closure of the sheet pile wall also requires closure and closure.

This method is from the corner began by block plug, each piece of steel pile from the end of the fight to the end of the stop. Therefore, the pile driver walking route is short, the construction is simple, set up fast. However, due to single block into, easy to tilt to one side, the cumulative error is not easy to correct, the wall flatness difficult to control.

First set by the surveyor steel plate pile cofferdam axis, can be set at a certain distance from the guide pile, guide pile directly use steel sheet pile. And then lanyard as a wire, piling when using wire to control the axis of the steel sheet pile, in the case of high axial requirements, the use of guide frame.

Single pile by root continuous hit, pay attention to the pile top elevation should not be too much difference. In the process of plugging at any time to measure the slope of each pile is not more than 2%, when the skew is too large can not be used to adjust the way, pull up the re-hit.

Rational Analysis of Impervious Steel Sheet Pile Walls

Until recently no consistent methodology has been available for the assessment of the seepage resistance of steel sheet pile (SSP) walls. The lack of such a methodology can conceivably lead to uneconomic design, especially in cases where the seepage resiatance is substantially greater than specific design requires.

ProfilARBED, the world’s leading producer of sheet piles, has carried out an exhaustive research projects in collaboration with Delft Geotechnics. The aim of the project was to determine the rate of seepage through SSP walls for various joint filler materials, as well as for empty and welded joints.

Two key areas of research were addressed:

  • Setting up a consistent theoty to describe the leakage behaviour through individual joints.
  • In situ experimentation on SSP walls.

In this paper the research results are deployed to enable the practical designer to make a rational assessment of the rate of seepage for a specific case. A range of possibilities is discussed: highly permeability and completely impervious welded joints.

The cost involved in each case can be balanced against the seepage resistance requirements and the most appropriate solution will present itself on the basis of the analysis.

(This article comes from J Steel Australasia editor released)

PAZ Sheet Piling

Z type sheet piling has a large section modulus (W=1200~5015cm3/m) and is suitable for large, medium and small projects that bear relatively large earth (water) pressure. Based on the characteristics of steel sheet piling, two pieces are usually combined into one group for driving. Although its construction procedure is slightly longer and technical difficulty is higher, its overall construction efficiency is higher since the group composed of two pieces of piles may have a width of 1160~1400mm, nearly 2~3 times the width of single piece of U profile steel sheet pile; hence sheet piling catalog have been widely used for a lot of dock projects of China that has a requirement for land-based area. Normally, the construction method is “pile pitching through vibration, and then pile sinking through hammering”

The most essential mechanical property of steel sheet piling is the continuity of web and the symmetrical distribution of interlocks at specified positions at both sides of neutral axis, both have positive effect on section modulus of cold rolled steel sheet pile.

Z profile sheet piling has the following merits:

1) Flexible design and resultant relatively high section modulus and mass ratio;

2) Increase in moment inertia of section, improvement of bending rigidity of overall piling wall, and effective reduction of displacement deformation;

3) The use of high tensile steel remarkably improves the bending strength of sheet pile wall;

4)The increase in section width brings about the reduction of interlocks of sheet pile wall, which directly improves the water sealing performance of sheet pile wall.

 

Section Dimensions Mass Per metre of wall Coating area
Thick-ness System
width
single
Height Single
pile
Wall Section
modulus
Moment
of
inertia
Sectional
area
Single
pile
Double
pile
e b h
mm mm mm kg/m kg/m2 cm3 cm4 cm2 m2/m m2/m
PAZ 43 50 5.0 770 213 38.2 49.6 448 4 770 63.2 0.91 1.77
PAZ 43 60 6.0 770 214 45.8 59.4 534 5 720 75.7 0.91 1.77
PAZ 43 70 7.0 770 215 53.3 69.2 619 6 660 88.2 0.91 1.77
PAZ 44 50 5.0 725 269 37.7 52.0 612 8 240 66.2 0.91 1.77
PAZ 44 60 6.0 725 270 45.1 62.2 730 9 890 79.3 0.91 1.77
PAZ 44 70 7.0 725 271 52.4 72.3 846 11 535 92.1 0.91 1.77
PAZ 45 50 5.0 676 312 37.7 55.8 772 12 065 71.0 0.91 1.77
PAZ 45 60 6.0 676 313 45.1 66.7 922 14 444 85.0 0.91 1.77
PAZ 45 70 7.0 676 314 52.4 77.5 1 069 16 815 98.8 0.91 1.77
PAZ 46 50 5.0 621 347 37.7 60.7 940 16 318 77.3 0.91 1.77
PAZ 46 60 6.0 621 348 45.1 72.6 1 122 19 544 92.5 0.91 1.77
PAZ 46 70 7.0 621 349 52.4 84.4 1 302 22 756 107.5 0.91 1.77
PAZ 53 60 6.0 857 300 54.3 63.3 766 11 502 80.7 1.04 2.05
PAZ 53 70 7.0 857 301 63.2 73.7 888 13 376 93.9 1.04 2.05
PAZ 53 80 8.0 857 302 72.1 84.0 1009 15 249 107.1 1.04 2.05
PAZ 53 90 9.0 857 303 81.0 94.4 1131 17 123 120.3 1.04 2.05
PAZ 54 60 6.0 807 351 53.9 66.8 968 16 989 85.1 1.04 2.05
PAZ 54 70 7.0 807 352 62.6 77.6 1123 19 774 98.9 1.04 2.05
PAZ 54 80 8.0 807 353 71.4 88.4 1277 22 546 112.7 1.04 2.05
PAZ 54 90 9.0 807 354 80.2 99.3 1431 25 318 126.5 1.04 2.05
PAZ 54 100 10.0 808 355 89.2 110.3 1570 27 850 140.5 1.04 2.05
PAZ 55 60 6.0 743 407 53.9 72.5 1233 25 074 92.4 1.04 2.05
PAZ 55 70 7.0 743 408 62.6 84.3 1432 29 179 107.4 1.04 2.05
PAZ 55 80 8.0 744 409 71.4 96.0 1628 33 263 122.3 1.04 2.05
PAZ 55 90 9.0 744 410 80.2 107.8 1825 37 387 137.3 1.04 2.05
PAZ 55 100 10.0 745 411 89.2 119.8 2000 41 060 152.6 1.04 2.05
PAZ 56 60 6.0 671 451 53.9 80.3 1525 34 340 102.3 1.04 2.05
PAZ 56 70 7.0 671 452 62.6 93.3 1770 39 954 118.9 1.04 2.05
PAZ 56 80 8.0 672 453 71.4 106.3 2013 45 537 135.4 1.04 2.05
PAZ 56 90 9.0 672 454 80.2 119.3 2259 51 180 151.9 1.04 2.05
PAZ 56 100 10.0 673 455 89.2 132.5 2470 56 200 168.8 1.04 2.05