Rational Analysis of Impervious Steel Sheet Pile Walls

Until recently no consistent methodology has been available for the assessment of the seepage resistance of steel sheet pile (SSP) walls. The lack of such a methodology can conceivably lead to uneconomic design, especially in cases where the seepage resiatance is substantially greater than specific design requires.

ProfilARBED, the world’s leading producer of sheet piles, has carried out an exhaustive research projects in collaboration with Delft Geotechnics. The aim of the project was to determine the rate of seepage through SSP walls for various joint filler materials, as well as for empty and welded joints.

Two key areas of research were addressed:

  • Setting up a consistent theoty to describe the leakage behaviour through individual joints.
  • In situ experimentation on SSP walls.

In this paper the research results are deployed to enable the practical designer to make a rational assessment of the rate of seepage for a specific case. A range of possibilities is discussed: highly permeability and completely impervious welded joints.

The cost involved in each case can be balanced against the seepage resistance requirements and the most appropriate solution will present itself on the basis of the analysis.

(This article comes from J Steel Australasia editor released)

Permanent Sheet Pile Basement Wall

Today, sheet piles are used frequently in the construction of underground car parks and basements. Manufacturers are designing and installing a variety of sheet pile retaining walls according to the ground conditions and individual project requirements. Sheet pile walls can either be used in a temporary or permanent works application.

When sheet piles are used in permanent works, there is a possibility of achieving a high quality finish to such an extent that outward face of steel can be painted rather than building a concrete facing wall to place in front of the sheet piles. Sheet piles have been widely used in the construction of multiple underground car parks located within the basement structures and they have proved to be extremely efficient and cost effective.

Sheet pile walls when used as permanent structural elements in the construction of car parks or roads play multiple roles. A sheet pile wall :

  • Provides watertight containment for the excavation pit
  • Serves as the permanent outer structural wall
  • Serves as a retaining wall especially during the excavation phase in order to support the horizontal pressures better.

Sheet pile applications provide a number of benefits. Sheet pile walls can:

  • Maximise the available space, a highly needed feature especially in the urban centres
  • Shortens the overall construction time
  • Reduces the total cost of the project or building being constructed.

Sheet piles can be easily given a new look once the construction is complete with paint. Sheet pile application does not require a lot of time nor space for installation. Apart from providing water tightness during the excavation phase, sheet pile walls can also carry horizontal loads from earth pressures.

Sheet piles are usually delivered and used as welded double piles. Underground car park sheet piles are an extremely constructive component, shaped in a way that provides suitable depth below the floor of the excavation. Due to their exceptional benefits and help in rapid construction of the site, sheet piles today are used around the world in the construction of ports and harbours, bridge abutments, road widening retaining walls, flood defense system and river control structures.

(This article comes from ESC Pile editor released)

Z-shaped sheet piles

Z-shaped sheet piles are called Zs because the single piles are shaped roughly like a horizontally stretched Z. The interlocks are located as far away from the neutral axis as possible to ensure good shear transmission and increase the strength-to-weight ratio. Z piles are the most common type of sheet pile in North America and can be used in a wide variety of applications. Retaining walls, cofferdams, parking garages, environmental barrier walls, and bulkhead walls for ports are just a few of their varied uses.

(This article comes from Skyline Steel editor released)

Sheet Piles

Sheet Piles are interlocking steel sections that are driven in the ground to support excavations or soil removal. Since the sheets make a continuous steel wall, they are most useful to stop water infiltration, loose soil infiltration, and migration of soils. Sheet piles are manufactured in many shapes and thicknesses for use in all situations , from lightweight residential shoring to high capacity commercial structures. The Sheet Piles can be coated for corrosion protection to add a longer life under severe conditions.

Sheet Piles are installed with Vibratory hammers and impact hammers depending on the soil conditions at the site.

Sheet Piles can be used for temporary shoring, removed and reused.

(This article comes from Pile Contractors editor released)

Philippines sheet piling

Philippines sheet piling MMU20-4 and MMU20-5 are easy to install in MMU20-6 difficult or restrictive MMU21-1 conditions, have a lower initial cost and reduce maintenance expenses. The location of the zone of maximum horizontal soil stress for wall systems with inextensible and extensible soil reinforcement, which forms the boundary between the active and resistant zones and which is assumed to be the failure surface for internal stability. Hardware shall be drop forged, pressed or formed steel, or made of materials MMU20-4 equivalent in strength. They also have greater strength and stability, are installed without expensive equipment and can be rapidly assembled with unskilled crews. For all wall systems, the zone of maximum horizontal soil stress shall be assumed to MMU 25-3 begin at the back of the facing elements at the toe of the wall.

Regan Industrial Sales, Inc. (RISI) shall be MMU20-5 smooth to prevent damage to the attached body harness or lanyard. CONTECH Bin-Walls gain stability from the weight of the fill material plus the weight of the steel structure MMU 25-2 itself. For wall systems with extensible soil reinforcement, the zone of maximum horizontal soil stress, as defined by the MMU20-6 angle,y , from horizontal, should be determined using the Coulomb theory.

When vertical lifelines (droplines) are used, not more than one employee shall be attached to any one lifeline. But unlike most other MMU 25-1 types of walls, they are flexible and adjust themselves to minor ground movement without cracking.. Hardware shall have a corrosion resistant finish. Closed construction All four sides of each CONTECH Bin-Wall cell are composed of overlapping MMU21-1 steel members. In applying the Coulomb theory, the back of the wall facing elements shall be assumed to be the pressure MMU 23-2 surface and, d , the wall friction angle shall be assumed equal to, b , or ,B, where,b , Philippine equals the slope of the backfill surface behind the wall face and, B, is the notional slope of the MMU21-2 backfill associated with a broken back backfill surface behind the wall face.

Sheet piles MMU21-2 in the following MMU22-1 items are based on a MMU23-1 and MMU23-2 total combined MMU 23-1 weight of employee and tools of no more than 310 pounds. Bolted together, they form an integral structure. Lanyards shall have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN). The minimum effective pullout length shall be 3 feet. Because the face of a CONTECH Bin-Wall is fully MMU 22-2 enclosed, you are protected against loss of fill material. Horizontal lifelines shall have a tensile strength capable of supporting a fall impact load of at least 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN) per employee using the lifeline, applied anywhere along the lifeline. This contrasts with crib-type retaining MMU 22-1 wall construction through which fill material can escape, weakening the structure. Internal stability shall be used in the determination of pullout resistance.

Vertical lifelines (drop lines) shall have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN), except that self-retracting lifelines and lanyards that automatically limit free fall distance to two feet (.61 m) or less shall have a minimum tensile strength of 3,000 pounds (13.3 kN). Concentrated surcharge loads shall be considered in the determination of the location of the zone of maximum horizontal MMU22-1 soil stress. Versatility CONTECH Bin-Walls can be readily adapted for mmu 21-1 installation on curves by shortening the horizontal stringers as needed to shorten either the front or rear wall face. Full body harness systems shall be secured to anchorages MMU23-1 capable of supporting 5,000 pounds per employee; except when self-retracting lifelines or other deceleration devices are MMU23-2 used which limit free fall to two feet, anchorages shall be capable of withstanding 3,000 pounds.

The rugged modular look and strong horizontal lines of CONTECH Bin-Walls blend well with most MMU25-1 environments. If combined weight is more than 310 pounds, appropriate allowances must be made or the MMU 20-6 system will not be deemed to be in compliance. The standard galvanized surface weathers gradually to a softer gray.All components of body harness systems whose strength is not MMU25-2 otherwise specified in this subsection shall be capable of supporting a minimum fall impact load of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN) applied at the lanyard point of connection.

Regan Industrial Sales, Inc. (RISI) shall provide a minimum MMU25-1 or MMU25-2 factor of safety against MMU25-3 Philippine pullout equal to 1.5 as determined by the MMU 20-5 following equation. Snap hooks shall not be connected to loops made in webbing type lanyards. Snap hooks shall not be connected to the webbing of the lanyard unless designed to do so. In the determination of the vertical soil MMU25-3 stress at each level of soil reinforcement, only permanent loads should be considered. Not more than one snap hook shall be connected to any D-ring. Lanyards shall not MMU 20-4 be attached directly to a retractable device. x. System components shall be compatible.

Precast concrete sheet piles

Precast concrete piles are made in square or rectangular cross-section and are driven similar to wooden piles to form a continuous wall. The interlock between two piles is normally provided with the help of tongue and groove joint. The tongue and groove extend to the full length of the piles in most of the cases.

An alternative method of providing joint between two piles is shown below. In this method, after the piles are driven to the required. depth, the joint is grouted with cement mortar 1: 2 (1 cement : 2 sand).

The piles are reinforced to avoid formation of cracks due to rough handling or shrinkage stresses. In order to reduce the possibility of damage due to driving impact, the stirrups should be spaced closely near the top and bottom of the piles. The piles are normally bevelled at their feet to facilitate tightly close driving of a pile against the already driven one.  Reinforced concrete sheet piles are bulky and heavy and as such they are gradually being superseded by prestressed concrete piles.

(This article comes from theconstructioncivil.org editor released)

Sheet Pile Wall

Sheet piles that are connected in the locks form a continuous wall. The most common use of this structure is to realize cofferdams or to temporarily secure foundation pits. Sheet piles are usually rammed or vibrated. Permanent sheet pile walls are also built as a part of flood protection, embankment walls and it is also possible to use them in the process of remediation of contaminated soils.

The GEO5 Sheeting Check program is used to make advanced designs of anchored or strutted sheet pile retaining walls (also Diaphragm, Pile or Soldier pile walls are supported). It allows the user to model the real structure behavior using stages of construction, to calculate the deformation and pressures acting upon the structure,

to verify the internal anchor stability or to verify steel, RC or timber cross-sections and the bearing capacity of the anchors.

The GEO5 Sheeting Design program is used to perform a quick design of cantilevered sheet pile walls or a basic design of anchored sheet pile walls (tieback). The program calculates the required length of the structure in soil,

the internal forces on the structure and verifies cross-sections (RC, steel, timber).

(This article comes from Fine Software editor released)

Sheet Pile Corrosion Protection

To enhance the durability of sheet piles and hence to increase the success of your project, two forms of corrosion protection are available: Coating and hot-dip galvanizing.

Coatings

The choice of coating system depends on the expected stressing and the required service life. To cope with the severe stressing to which sheet piling is usually exposed, epoxy resin or polyurethane coatings are applied in most cases. They are also compatible with the HOESCH interlock seal system.

The high strength of these systems permits complete coating in the factory because, if correctly handled, no damage during transport or installation is to be expected. A factory coating is also advisable for environmental reasons, as this eliminates problems associated with grinding dust and overspray on the project site. To prevent rust stains on the coated sections, any existing interlock gaps must be grouted on site.

The coating of section interlocks filled with bitumen-based materials is not recommended, as during threading some of the material will be squeezed out of the interlock chamber and soil the wall of sheet piling. Subsequent cleaning of these areas is complicated and expensive.

Hot dip galvanising

Hot-dip galvanizing is another method of corrosion protection and is also compatible with the HOESCH interlock seal system. It can also be combined with coatings (duplex system) to yield synergies. The requirements of DIN EN ISO1461 must be observed. Before hot-dip galvanizing, a steel analysis must be carried out in order to determine the surface quality. Special marking is also necessary. Notice should therefore be given of the intention to have the piles hot-dip galvanized before the start of rolling. Like coating, hot-dip galvanizing is not recommended if the interlock has been filled with bitumen-based materials.

(This article comes from Thyssenkrupp Infrastructure editor released)

The History of Sheet Piles

Let’s start with Larssen sheet piles. Larssen set of sheet piles are famous and well known to civil engineers worldwide. Their reliability, versatility and strength in all types of condition as retaining structures has beenwell proven and documented many times over.

Here is a little bit of history of this famous sheet pile. In 1902, Mr Tryggve Larssen, State Chief Engineer at the City of Bremen in Germany, developed the world’s first steel sheet pile, which has U section with riveted interlocks. Thus this how the name of this sheet pile comes about.

Larssen U Section Sheet Pile

The interlocking idea on both sides of the sheet pile came about In 1914. This is still utilized all over the world as the most popularsteel sheet pile section.

One of the oldest Larssen U pile is displayed at Giken Kochi Head Office to remind us of the historical background of U steel sheet pile. The picture below is a typical larssen sheet piles stacked together.

The interlocking system mentioned above can be seen from the photo on the left. On both the sides of the sheet piles have U shapes which can be used to interlock to another sheet pile.

The interlocking system creates a water tight and increase the strength the sheet pile structures. Be it cofferdams or earth retaining systems.

20160926Here is a diagram thats show how interlocking is done

(This article comes from hsmetalproduct.com editor released)

FRP Sheet Piles System Added to Portfolio

The perfect solution for most applications

Our FRP sheet piles will not rot, corrode or spall, the design is light weight, high strength, low maintenance and ease of fabrication. We have great Green credentials such as it is inert, will not leach dangerous chemicals, pesticides or heavy metals into the environment. Typical applications such as river fronts, marinas, inland waterways, harbour retaining walls and railway embankment land spillages.

China-steelpiling was developed to fill a need in a market where an extremely tough, high energy absorbing round FRP sheet piles is required. The attributes of the China-steelpiling satisfy the stringent requirements of the fender pile marketplace. The mechanical aspects of the FRP sheet piles, in combination with the corrosion resistance characteristics, and the fact that the fiberglass pipe piles will not rot, rust, spall or corrode makes China-steelpiling the perfect FRP sheet piles for your application.

We can provide the right solution and assist our customers during the feasibility stages of projects, and prepare preliminary design and cost estimates, as well as detailed designs, drawings and specifications.

(This article comes from assetint edit released)