How Much Does a Retaining Wall Cost?

A retaining wall is more than just another decorative element or landscaping feature. These walls serve an important function: to prevent ground from slipping and sliding. Though decorative in nature, retaining walls are a must for some areas.

Nevertheless, the big decision revolves around cost. See the full cost breakdown below. If you need some assistance with your retaining wall installation, we can help you get in touch with masonry pros near you.

Cost Of Retaining Wall

  • Wood Retaining Walls: $15 per square foot
  • Interlocking Concrete Retaining Walls: $20 per square foot
  • Natural Stone Retaining Walls: $25 or more per square foot

The cost of a retaining wall depends on the material chosen, the overall height of the wall and the length of the wall. Wood retaining walls start at $15 per square foot, while concrete retaining walls start at $20 per square foot. Homeowners interested in using natural stone will find that those stones increase the cost to $25 or more per square foot.

In addition to the materials used, the job also requires excavating the ground and removing any dirt or surface materials from the space. This can add a few thousand dollars to the job, depending on the length of the wall. Though experts generally recommend that retaining walls sit no higher than four feet without any additional support, it’s possible to have a retaining wall of up to 10 feet high. These taller walls can cost nearly $20,000 while a six-foot-wall can cost around $13,000. Decorative retaining walls and those that serve no real purpose generally cost less.

(This article comes from ImproveNet editor released)

Steel sheet pile construction method classification

1. Use vibration pile hammer vibration;

2 using pile jacking machine jacking method;

3 auger jacking method;

4 piling method using a hammer

For hard base, water jetting method can be used.

1. Use vibration pile hammer vibration method

This is achieved by the vertical vibration generated by the vibration pile hammer steel sheet pile driven into the ground construction technology. Default striking force in the head, sheet piles will not be damaged, which helps high construction efficiency; this technology is suitable for both driving and extracting piles. However, the instantaneous electric current is very high vibration situations, and therefore large electrical equipment is required; if the hydraulic vibration, hydraulic machine is in most cases is a must.

Recently, the machine, according to bundle or in a small space for low noise, low vibration construction methods and construction services have been put into operation.

2 using pile jacking method pipe jacking machine

This is the drive for use in steel sheet pile reaction force through the middle portion of the clamp is a steel sheet pile construction technique by steel sheet pile into the ground.

Upper body is very compact machine for lower beam structure, but with additional steel piles need to lift crane.

The technology is applicable to soft ground, can achieve low noise and low vibration structure.

3 pipe jacking method, using an auger

With respect to the method of this structure, the steel sheet pile is pressed into during or after drilling using hydraulic machine; in technology this structure provides a penetration mechanism both an auger drilling bodies and sheet piles. Due to the use of the sleeve, a penetration achieved during the high rigidity, so this technique is suitable for hard base. In addition, this construction method, can achieve low noise, low vibration construction.

4 piling method using a hammer

This method of construction has a big hitting power, fluidity, high hit frequency and rich business; however, feasible pile hammer, must be chosen so as to prevent the pile head during the beating compression failure.

As well as regional designated area since the construction technique makes high noise and vibration, and its surrounding residential areas, schools, hospitals and other use is limited; therefore, it is rarely used in Docklands.

Hammers into diesel-powered hammers, hydraulic hammers, pneumatic hammers monkeys and so on.

(This article comes from Linkedin editor released)

Double-wall Sheet Piling Cofferdam

These dam consists of two straight, parallel vertical walls of sheet piling, tied to each other and the space between walls filled with soil. The width between the parallel piles is empirically set as (h/2 + 1.5m); where h is height of water. Double-wall sheet piling coffer dams higher than 2.5m should be strutted. Sometimes, an inside berm is provided to keep the phreatic line within the berm.

The fill material should have a high coefficient of friction and unit weight so that it performs as a massive body to give the coffer dam stability against sliding and overturning. Suitable measures should be adopted to reduce the uplift on the coffer dam. This is generally done by driving the sheet piling on the upstream as deep as possible.

The double-wall sheet piling cofferdam has the advantage of having less leakage than that in a single-wall cofferdam. These coffer dams are suitable upto a height of 10m.

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(This article comes from CivilEblog editor released)

Single sheet pile cofferdam

These are generally used to enclose small foundation sites in water for bridges at a relatively shallow depth. In this type of coffer dams, there is a single row of cantilever sheet piles. The piles are sometimes heavily braced. Joints in the steet piles are properly sealed. This type of coffer dams are suitable for moderate-flow velocities of water and for depth upto 4 m. The depth of penetration below ground surface is about 0.25h for coarse sand and gravels, 0.5h for dine sand and 0.85h for silts, where h is the depth of water. Sometimes single-sheet coffer dams are provided with earth fills on one or both sides to increase the lateral stability. The figure of single sheet pile cofferdam is shown in follow.

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(This article comes from CivilEblog editor released)

Sheet Piles

Sheet Piles are interlocking steel sections that are driven in the ground to support excavations or soil removal. Since the sheets make a continuous steel wall, they are most useful to stop water infiltration, loose soil infiltration, and migration of soils. Sheet piles are manufactured in many shapes and thicknesses for use in all situations , from lightweight residential shoring to high capacity commercial structures. The Sheet Piles can be coated for corrosion protection to add a longer life under severe conditions.

Sheet Piles are installed with Vibratory hammers and impact hammers depending on the soil conditions at the site.

Sheet Piles can be used for temporary shoring, removed and reused.

(This article comes from Pile Contractors editor released)

Steel sheet piling

VolkerGround Engineering can design and install a variety of sheet pile retaining walls depending upon the individual project requirements and ground conditions. A sheet pile wall can be used in either a permanent or temporary works application in either a land or marine environment.

This application has been used on a number of flood alleviation schemes around the country, providing both existing embankment stabilisation and flood prevention barriers.

In permanent works a high quality finish can be achieved to such an extent that the steel face can be merely painted rather than providing a concrete facing wall in front of the sheet piles. This has been widely used in the construction of underground car parks within basement structures, which has proved to be extremely cost effective.

Retaining wall design is one of the key services provided by VolkerGround Engineering, whether at the initial costing of project works or the final construction scheme. Our experienced designers are able to advise and provide clients with the most cost effective structural solution for either temporary or permanent schemes.

Once designed and priced, VolkerGround Engineering are able to select the most suitable plant from their own fleet, for the construction of the sheet pile retaining wall.

Steel piles can provide a cost effective solution to a wide range of foundation applications. Manufactured in continental Europe, steel piling is especially suitable for building structures in a sustainable and cost effective manner. Major manufacturers form steel sheet piling in electric arc furnaces, utilising a blend of scrap products from a variety of sources. The chemical content of steel piles is strictly controlled in order to produce material of acceptable section modulus, to satisfy all current construction and design codes, particularly with regard to the relevant Euro Codes, and CE certifications.

HZM/AZ steel piles can provide an economical combination wall using steel sheet piling and sections combined to form a permanent wall that is capable of supporting both vertical and lateral building loads. The high section modulus of the steel piles can ensure that minimal surface deflections are recorded. This makes the system useful for deeper excavations, where only concrete diaphragm walls had previously been considered.

Steel piling, in the form of interlinked tubular piles and sheets, has been widely used in this country in the formation of marine quay walls. VolkerGround Engineering has completed such a structure, in partnership with VolkerStevin, on the refurbishment of Berths 201 – 202, for the Port of Southampton. The berths were dredged and extended to take the new generation of pan panamex container vessels with increased berth depth requirements.

(This article comes from VolkerGround Engineering editor released)

Types of Sheet Piling and Project Considerations

Sheet Piles are by definition, structural units which when connected one to another, will form a continuous wall, generally for retaining earth or excluding water. Individual pieces or pre-interlocked pairs, are installed by driving them into the earth using impact hammers, vibrators or by water jetting. In functioning as a wall, the sheet piling acts as a beam under load and therefore requires the capability to resist bending. In certain applications, ability to resist bending is not important but strength of interlock is. Sheet Piling is manufactured in three basic configurations “Z”, “U”, and “Straight”. They can be formed either “Hot Rolled” or “Cold Rolled”. A recent development to the industry is the production of some sheet piling shapes by the cold-forming process in which hot rolled sheet is fabricated into traditional sheet piling shapes. These new additions to product availability contain interlocks which are considerably different from the hot-rolled product. Manufactured from a hot-rolled coil of sheet, it is slowly fed through a series of rollers which gradually bends or forms the steel into its designated shape.

The “Z” type configuration for sheet piling is the strongest and most efficient. These shapes resemble wide-flange beams, having a web and two flanges. Since the interlocks are located out on the flanges at maximum distance from the neutral axis, a higher section modulus for resisting bending moments is provided. Z- shapes have traditionally been used for deeper walls and heavier construction projects. However, they are now supplanting the arch or “U” shape for lighter work as more light-weight Z-shape have been introduced into the marketplace. U-shapes resemble the hot-rolled channel sections produced on structural mills. The interlocks are formed on the web ends and interlock with their opposing mate along the centerline of the wall.

(This article comes from Roll Form Group editor released)

Philippines sheet piling

Philippines sheet piling MMU20-4 and MMU20-5 are easy to install in MMU20-6 difficult or restrictive MMU21-1 conditions, have a lower initial cost and reduce maintenance expenses. The location of the zone of maximum horizontal soil stress for wall systems with inextensible and extensible soil reinforcement, which forms the boundary between the active and resistant zones and which is assumed to be the failure surface for internal stability. Hardware shall be drop forged, pressed or formed steel, or made of materials MMU20-4 equivalent in strength. They also have greater strength and stability, are installed without expensive equipment and can be rapidly assembled with unskilled crews. For all wall systems, the zone of maximum horizontal soil stress shall be assumed to MMU 25-3 begin at the back of the facing elements at the toe of the wall.

Regan Industrial Sales, Inc. (RISI) shall be MMU20-5 smooth to prevent damage to the attached body harness or lanyard. CONTECH Bin-Walls gain stability from the weight of the fill material plus the weight of the steel structure MMU 25-2 itself. For wall systems with extensible soil reinforcement, the zone of maximum horizontal soil stress, as defined by the MMU20-6 angle,y , from horizontal, should be determined using the Coulomb theory.

When vertical lifelines (droplines) are used, not more than one employee shall be attached to any one lifeline. But unlike most other MMU 25-1 types of walls, they are flexible and adjust themselves to minor ground movement without cracking.. Hardware shall have a corrosion resistant finish. Closed construction All four sides of each CONTECH Bin-Wall cell are composed of overlapping MMU21-1 steel members. In applying the Coulomb theory, the back of the wall facing elements shall be assumed to be the pressure MMU 23-2 surface and, d , the wall friction angle shall be assumed equal to, b , or ,B, where,b , Philippine equals the slope of the backfill surface behind the wall face and, B, is the notional slope of the MMU21-2 backfill associated with a broken back backfill surface behind the wall face.

Sheet piles MMU21-2 in the following MMU22-1 items are based on a MMU23-1 and MMU23-2 total combined MMU 23-1 weight of employee and tools of no more than 310 pounds. Bolted together, they form an integral structure. Lanyards shall have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN). The minimum effective pullout length shall be 3 feet. Because the face of a CONTECH Bin-Wall is fully MMU 22-2 enclosed, you are protected against loss of fill material. Horizontal lifelines shall have a tensile strength capable of supporting a fall impact load of at least 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN) per employee using the lifeline, applied anywhere along the lifeline. This contrasts with crib-type retaining MMU 22-1 wall construction through which fill material can escape, weakening the structure. Internal stability shall be used in the determination of pullout resistance.

Vertical lifelines (drop lines) shall have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN), except that self-retracting lifelines and lanyards that automatically limit free fall distance to two feet (.61 m) or less shall have a minimum tensile strength of 3,000 pounds (13.3 kN). Concentrated surcharge loads shall be considered in the determination of the location of the zone of maximum horizontal MMU22-1 soil stress. Versatility CONTECH Bin-Walls can be readily adapted for mmu 21-1 installation on curves by shortening the horizontal stringers as needed to shorten either the front or rear wall face. Full body harness systems shall be secured to anchorages MMU23-1 capable of supporting 5,000 pounds per employee; except when self-retracting lifelines or other deceleration devices are MMU23-2 used which limit free fall to two feet, anchorages shall be capable of withstanding 3,000 pounds.

The rugged modular look and strong horizontal lines of CONTECH Bin-Walls blend well with most MMU25-1 environments. If combined weight is more than 310 pounds, appropriate allowances must be made or the MMU 20-6 system will not be deemed to be in compliance. The standard galvanized surface weathers gradually to a softer gray.All components of body harness systems whose strength is not MMU25-2 otherwise specified in this subsection shall be capable of supporting a minimum fall impact load of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN) applied at the lanyard point of connection.

Regan Industrial Sales, Inc. (RISI) shall provide a minimum MMU25-1 or MMU25-2 factor of safety against MMU25-3 Philippine pullout equal to 1.5 as determined by the MMU 20-5 following equation. Snap hooks shall not be connected to loops made in webbing type lanyards. Snap hooks shall not be connected to the webbing of the lanyard unless designed to do so. In the determination of the vertical soil MMU25-3 stress at each level of soil reinforcement, only permanent loads should be considered. Not more than one snap hook shall be connected to any D-ring. Lanyards shall not MMU 20-4 be attached directly to a retractable device. x. System components shall be compatible.

Sheet Pile Walls – Overview

In order to have a more efficient usage of construction areas in congested urban areas a vertical development of buildings becomes necessary. Currently we more often face situations where urban buildings need as many parking spaces, so, due to lack of space, that requires the development of several underground floors.

The design and execution of deep excavations in congested urban areas is quite a challenge especially in terms of geotechnical engineering and it requires a good knowledge of the soil mechanics and soil interaction with the retaining walls of the excavation.

The analysis of excavation retaining walls can be performed using two calculation methods (sizing methods): Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM) and a numerical method – Stiffness Ratio Method (FEM/SRM).

(This article comes from GEOSTRU editor released)

Precast concrete sheet piles

Precast concrete piles are made in square or rectangular cross-section and are driven similar to wooden piles to form a continuous wall. The interlock between two piles is normally provided with the help of tongue and groove joint. The tongue and groove extend to the full length of the piles in most of the cases.

An alternative method of providing joint between two piles is shown below. In this method, after the piles are driven to the required. depth, the joint is grouted with cement mortar 1: 2 (1 cement : 2 sand).

The piles are reinforced to avoid formation of cracks due to rough handling or shrinkage stresses. In order to reduce the possibility of damage due to driving impact, the stirrups should be spaced closely near the top and bottom of the piles. The piles are normally bevelled at their feet to facilitate tightly close driving of a pile against the already driven one.  Reinforced concrete sheet piles are bulky and heavy and as such they are gradually being superseded by prestressed concrete piles.

(This article comes from theconstructioncivil.org editor released)