Shallow foundation using the method of open excavation foundation pouring the foundation after the backfill side of the soil. It is not possible to consider the lateral frontal upper surface of the foundation side of the friction, regardless of the contribution to the bearing capacity of the foundation. And deep foundation using the method of extrusion or into the slot, and then pouring concrete or extrusion method used to direct the deep foundation into the soil even if the method of artificial excavation is the formation of the hole, the tank directly pouring concrete, This method of construction makes the side of the pile, wall, wall side of the natural soil directly contact the role of the lateral soil is very obvious. The soil around the deep foundation can be regarded as the original soil or stronger than the original soil strength of the soil can play a contribution to the carrying capacity, and shallow foundation around the filling of the soil completely disturb the quality is difficult to control, Deep foundation side can transmit the shear force, while the shallow foundation can not consider the role of lateral frictional resistance.
- Lifting anchor used in the anchor, should be strictly in accordance with the design of the production, and do a good job of hidden engineering records, the use of not allowed to overload;
- Ground anchor pit should be dug into a rectangular trapezoidal shape, slope and vertical angle of 15 degrees is appropriate. The depth of the anchor is determined according to the general situation of the site.
- The angle between the tow rope and the horizontal plane is generally less than 30 degrees, and the anchoring point of the anchor pit (ie, the rope is exposed to the ground after passing through the soil). The depth of the front pit is 2.5 times and the foundation pit is within 2 meters. Trench, cable, underground pipes and other structures and temporary trenching;
- There should be no water around the anchor;
- The anchor is not allowed to be placed along the embedded part.
Pipe piles are produced from different steel grade for wide applications, for example, foundation pipes, king pile, monopile, bearing pile, pipe pile wall, slope stabilization, pipelines, deep foundation, and struts etc. Depending on the technology, tubular pipe can be classified as:
Spiral Submerged arc Welding pipe pile (SSAW steel pipe)
Spiral steel pipe pile is most frequently used with sheet piles to form tubular combined wall because SSAW pipes can be easily produced in very long length without extra welding and in very big diameters. Spiral submerged arc welding pipes are the ideal options for pipe pile wall,steel pipe piles, with steel interlock for clutch to connect two adjacent pipe piles. Spiral welded tubular pipes are produced from steel coils, welded both internally and externally. The width of steel coils used for steel pipe sheet piles can be varied, but in API standard, the material width should be from 80% of the OD to 300% of OD) Pipe shoes are normally welded to piling pipe due to driving considerations. Weld bead can be applied inside. In lots of cases, spiral piling piles are painted for pipe pile walls.
Longitudinally Submerged arc Welding pipe pile (LSAW steel pipe)
LSAW pipe piles are produced from steel plates, so the single steel pipe pile length can be maximum 16m without extra splicing. While Long welded pipes can be very thick, up to 100mm.Almost all pile shoes are longitudinal pipes. Longitudinal pipes can form with heavy pipe pile wall, with clutches, shear rings, and other fabricated components. These steel pipes are typically used in pipelines for liquid or gas or oil and petroleum casings. LSAW pipe pile can also be used as king piles and steel pipe piling.
Seamless pipes are produced by drawing a solid billet over a piercing rod, then the hollow pipe formed. Seamless pipes can withstand more pressure than any other steel pipes. When seamless pipes are used for steel pipe sheet pile, the project must have very strict quality controls. Seamless pipe piles are limited in OD and thickness, compared with Spiral welded pipes and Long welded pipes. Wide range of API steel grades and manufacturing standards are available here. Typical applications for seamless steel pipes are oil and gas line pipes, deep foundations,OCTG pipe, drilling casings and pipelines for pas or petroleum
Electric Resistance Welded Pipe (ERW pipe)
ERW pipes are cold formed from steel strip through the rolled. The OD of ERW steel pipes are normally within 600mm and wall thickness of ERW pipe piles are maximum 16mm.ERW piling pipes is a fast and cost effective solutions for steel pipe sheet pile. Electric resistance welded pipes are also typically used as dock piling, marinas, tunnels, columns and struts etc.