Hot Rolled Sheet Pile and Its Advantages

Whether to use hot rolled sheet pile or cold formed sheet pile is a question a lot of people face when working with products in the steel industry. However, to know which is right for a project it is best to first know what each are and the differences between the two. The topic of this article will focus on hot rolled sheet pile, what it is used for and the benefits of choosing sheet pile produced with this method.

What is Hot Rolled Sheet Pile?

Hot rolled steel is manufactured through a milling process that involves the steel being rolled at extremely high temperatures to be shaped into its final product – often sheet pile. Steel is rolled at a temperature above its recrystallization temperature, which is over 1700° F. Heating the steel to such a high temperature allows it to be easily shaped and formed into sheet pile. Once the steel cools from the heat, the size decreases slightly so the final size of the product must be estimated. Hot rolled is the desired method for producing sheet metal when the tolerances and the surface quality are not a main factor.

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Applications:

Hot rolled steel can be used in a variety of applications throughout almost every industry in the world. This process is most often utilized to make steel products that are larger in size. It is also ideally used to manufacture structural components and to make sheet pile. It is commonly found in applications for the transportation, construction and railroad industries.

Advantages:

Cost – In most cases, sheet pile that has been cold formed is two times more expensive that hot rolled sheet pile. The difference in price is a result of cold formed steel being a more involved metal-working process.

Malleability – Sheet pile that has been hot rolled is much more malleable than cold formed sheet pile. This allows the product to be more easily forced into the desired shape.

Versatility –Cold rolled steel has little versatility as to what it can be shaped into. Hot rolled steel can be created into a variety of shapes to fit nearly any desired application.

(This article comes from jaydfields editor released)

The Role of Soil Anchors in Geotechnical Engineering

Many structures experiences overturning moments due to lateral loads which results in a combination of tension and compression responses at foundation level. The design of some structures need to foundation systems to resist uplift forces. In these conditions, an effective and safety design method can achieved through the use of tension elements that these elements are referred to ground anchors. This element are typically fixed to the structure and embedded in the ground to effective depth so that they can resist uplifting loads. Soil anchors typically used to resist such uplift loads, although they also provided as a measure to increase the soil stabilization.

The design of many structures need to foundation systems to resist vertical or horizontal pullout loads. As part of a larger effort to improve the performance of foundation systems, the development of guidelines for anchor system design and installation. The different structures like transmission towers, tunnels, sea walls, buried pipelines; retaining wall and etc are subjected to considerable pullout forces. In such cases, an absorbing and economic design solution may be obtained through the use of tension members. These elements, which are related to as anchors, are generally fixed to the structure and embedded in the ground to effective depth so that they can resist uplifting forces, will safety. The anchors are a thin foundation system designed and constructed specifically to resist any pullout force or overturning moment placed on a structure. Generally, anchors are used to transmit different forces from a structure to the soil. Their strength is obtained through the shear strength and dead weight of the surrounding soil. The different types of anchors used in geotechnical engineering and anchors are including:

  • Grout system
  • Helical system
  • Plate system
  • Soil hook system (SHS)

These examples would indicate that few soil anchors used to transfer loads from superstructures to denser soils, the presence of lateral loads would induce an uplift reaction on the soil anchors. The design requirement is therefore based on both comp ressive and tensile criterion for the successful implementation of a structure’s response although tens ile criterion is more important compared to compressive criterion in soil anchors. To fulfill th ese criteria, symmetrical anchor plates are usually employed. They are more effective compared to ot her soil anchor types. Anchor plates can be casted- in-place by excavation. Construction in cohesion less soil for symmetrical anchor plates is also comparatively easier compared to cohesive soils. With the increasing use of cast-in-place anchor plates to resist uplift forces, the need for a rational design procedures become apparent. This would account for soil properties at the intended anchor plate location and the anchor plate-soil-predicted response.

According to the current review, grouted anchors need to grout in their construction that this is a limitation in zones of cold climates. Although th is system need to excavation and their speed is low in construction due to performance of grout. Although plate anchors don’t need to grout but they have much limitation such as need to excavation, low speed in construction and their applicants are few due to uplift forces. The Helical system is a good system for different parts because don’t need grout, excavation and their speed in good in construction but their applicants are limit. It is important that different researchers in the world can extent different anchors with easy condition. In order to extent new anchors, the authors in this paper are testing new anchors and their regards to geotechnical society for d ecrease of problems in different anchors in near future althogh using geosynthetics and grid-fixed reinforced (GFR) to investigate anchors behavior is solved some lacks and problems such as uplift response and failu re zones in symmetrical anchor plates.

(This article comes from ejge.com editor released)

Misconceptions of Steel Sheet Piling

Misconception #1: Steel corrodes too quickly.

Contrary to many misconceptions, steel sheet piling durability concerns are minimal for most applications.The following qualitative diagram of corrosion zones in salt water is taken from Figure R 35-1 from the Committee for Waterfront Structures Harbours and Waterways (EAU) 2004 handbook section 8.1.8.1.

Coating for steel projects (especially in non-salt water environments) is often unnecessary.Concrete retaining walls exposed to seawater often demonstrate noticeable and significant deterioration from the combined effects of the following chemical and physical processes: sulfate attack, leaching of calcium hydroxide (lime), erosion and abrasion from wave effects, alkali-aggregate expansion, salt crystallization from alternate wetting and drying, and effects due to freezing and thawing of concrete.

In addition to corrosion concerns, piles using concrete often have water tightness issues. As the US Army Corps of Engineers Design of Sheet Pile Walls Engineer Manual from 1994 states about concrete piles, “Past experience indicates this pile can induce settlement (due to its own weight) in soft foundation materials. In this case the watertightness of the wall will probably be lost.” (Section 2.4.4 Page 9).

Steel piling retaining walls are actually much more suited than concrete for use in marine and corrosive environments.Even in the harshest marine environments, steel corrosion can be effectively minimized by simply taking into account the corrosion effect. This is done both when a given piling designation is chosen and/or by taking steps to protect piles or sheet piles against corrosion.

Committee for Waterfront Structures Harbours and Waterways (EAU) 2004 states in section 8.1.8.4: “According to available experience, coatings can delay the start of corrosion by more than 20 years.”

Misconception #2: Yes, steel piling is preferable but it is unavailable and/or hard to get.

Nothing could be further from reality!

Misconception #3: Steel sheet piling is more expensive than concrete piling.

The fact is: steel piling is not only stronger and more durable than concrete piling; it is cheaper, too.

The US Army Corps of Engineers Design of Sheet Pile Walls Engineer Manual from 1994 states on page 9 section 2-4b: “Concrete…has relatively high initial costs when compared to steel sheet piling. They [concrete piles] are more difficult to install than steel piling. Long-term field observations indicate that steel sheet piling provides a long service life when properly installed.”

(This article comes from ISheetPile editor released)

Design and Application of a Field Sensing System for Ground Anchors in Slopes

In a ground anchor system, cables or tendons connected to a bearing plate are used for stabilization of slopes. Then, the stability of a slope is dependent on maintaining the tension levels in the cables. So far, no research on a strain-based field sensing system for ground anchors has been reported. Therefore, in this study, a practical monitoring system for long-term sensing of tension levels in tendons for anchor-reinforced slopes is proposed. The system for anchor-reinforced slopes is composed of: (1) load cells based on vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs), (2) wireless sensor nodes which receive and process the signals from load cells and then transmit the result to a master node through local area communication, (3) master nodes which transmit the data sent from sensor nodes to the server through mobile communication, and (4) a server located at the base station. The system was applied to field sensing of ground anchors in the 62 m-long and 26 m-high slope at the side of the highway. Based on the long-term monitoring, the safety of the anchor-reinforced slope can be secured by the timely applications of re-tensioning processes in tendons.

A ground anchor system in slopes is used to stabilize a slope and thus to prevent a slope failure. The purpose of the anchor system can be achieved by transferring the residual forces of anchors to the compression forces on ground. Since a pre-stressing technique was utilized on the Cheurfas Dam in Algeria in 1935, various forms of ground anchors have been developed and utilized in numerous structures, including bridges, buoyancy structures below ground water level, and tunnels, in addition to the slopes. Nevertheless, most ground anchors have an identical basic mechanism of delivering residual force of a tendon to the ground.

All anchor systems have some of key common elements. According to EN 1537, a ground anchor is composed of three parts: (1) ground anchor body (2) anchor head, and (3) relevant accessories. Ground anchor body is again divided into two parts: free anchor length and fixed anchor length. The part of free anchor length where strand or rod is covered by sheath delivers the residual force from anchor head to the part of fixed anchor length where tendon is grouted. A part of fixed anchor length again delivers residual force to ground by friction and compression. Depending on the types, ground anchor systems requires its own relevant accessories (e.g., wedge, nut and saddle of anchor head) to facilitate the operation of the mechanism.

The ground anchor is designed to avoid the possible failure mechanisms by considering: (1) overall stability of the anchor-reinforced slope, (2) inner stability of the anchor, and (3) stability of the bearing block. The overall stability of anchor-reinforced slope is assessed by structural analysis on the reinforcement effect of anchor on the predicted failure section. Various factors, including introduced residual force, decrease of residual force at installation, creep of the ground, and relaxation of tendon are considered in the analysis.

Securing the inner stability of the anchor is mandatory to prevent the occurrence of failure between grout body and ground, failure between grout and tendon, and tendon fracture. Also, the bearing block which serves the role of distributing the residual force of the anchor on the surface of slopes should not be destroyed by shear force or moment. During the service period, current states of reinforcement can be obtained through a monitoring system and compared with the intended design or expectation. The residual force of anchor on the reinforced slope is directly connected to various failure scenarios of system. Hence it becomes the main target of slope monitoring.

(This article comes from MDPI AG editor released)

Duckbill Earth Anchors’ Benefits

Safer than conventional anchors, Duckbill earth anchors leave no rigid rods, stakes, pipes or stems above ground to injure people or damage equipment. Made of high-impact and shock-resistant Tenaloy aluminum alloy, Duckbills will not rust or corrode. High-strength galvanized aircraft cable has wedged loop end for easy tie off. These anchors are ideal for anchoring bird pens, small buildings and equipment.

Duckbill earth anchors are easy to install, saving labor and time. No digging is required. Wherever you can drive or drill into the ground you can use a Duckbill. Anchors are driven into the ground using a drive rod, with minimum disturbance of the soil. Once driven to the desired depth, an upward pull on the cable rotates the Duckbill into a load-lock position. Further upward tension causes the anchor to plane sideways through the earth against undisturbed soil, resisting pullout and increasing holding power.

Benefits:

  • Easy to install
  • No digging required
  • Saves time and labor
  • Safer than conventional anchors
  • Anchor and cable flush with ground will not damage equipment
  • No rigid rods, pipes or stakes above ground to injure people & animals

(This article comes from Louis E Page editor released)

Some Technical Performance Issues to Manta Ray and Stingray Earth Anchors

Manta Ray and Stingray anchors are tensile anchors designed to work well in soils with SPT blow counts (N) from 7 to 50. The smaller anchor models are used in harder soils or where lowers loads are required. Larger anchors are used in softer soils. In harder soils, the installed capacity is limited by the ultimate strength of the anchor. In softer soils, it is limited by the soil strength. Soils with blow counts of 35 to 50 and higher, often require the installer to drill a 4-inch diameter pilot hole for Manta Ray or a 6-inch pilot hole for Stingray prior to installation in order to achieve an efficient installation time.

Although they are not intended for installation in rock, some models can be successfully installed into rock formations with low Rock Quality Designation (RQD). Typically, a pilot hole is required for these installations, but sometimes anchors can be simply driven into weathered, layered, decomposing rock.

Manta Ray and Stingray anchors are designed to react tensile loads along the axis of the anchor rod. They are not designed to react compressive, lateral, or shear loads, however, they can be made to do so by the addition of grout, which will increase the holding capacity,
sometimes very significantly.

The increase is dependant upon the grout length and soil type. Both the CTB and SCR exceed the deformation characteristics of ASTM 615 rebar.

For retaining structures, Manta Ray anchors should be installed a minimum of 6 feet behind the failure place after proof testing. Stingray anchors should be installed a minimum of 10 feet behind the failure plane after proof testing. A minimum overburden of 4 feet must be maintained for Manta Ray anchors and 7 feet for Stingray anchors.

Manta Ray and Stingray anchors can be proof tested up to 90% of yield strength. Working loads are typically between 50% and 90% of the proof test value.

(This article comes from GeoSolutions editor released)

How To Install Earth Anchors

Use suitable trees as the posts at deer fence corners wherever possible. Lacking trees, you need earth anchors attached with a heavy wire or cable. The earth anchor system can be used effectively with any deer fence corner post or corner approach post set in a cement footing.

This earth anchor system is appealing because all you have to do is screw the anchor into the ground (this can be hard in places with rocks or roots) and run a heavy metal wire designed for outdoor use between a secure point on the deer fence post and the earth anchor’s handle. In most cases, compared to deer fence braces (an alternate bracing system), we have found earth anchors easier to install, less expensive, less visible, and more effective.

You can anchor a corner with earth anchors in two ways. One way anchors the corner post and requires only one earth anchor; but it leaves the earth anchor and its attachment cable outside the fence line, creating a potential lawnmower problem and tripping hazard. The other method braces the two posts approaching the corner post. This requires two earth anchors instead of one, but it puts the earth anchors and their cables right along the deer fence line, removing the lawnmower problem and tripping hazard.

If you are using the latter method, those parts of the deer fence between the corner approach posts and the corner post are not secured against sideways stress. So, where snow loads or falling tree branches are a problem, set the corner approach posts close to the corner post (within 6 to 10 feet, the closer the better). This will shorten the segments of fence that are not anchored.

(This article comes from McGregorDeerFence editor released)

Steel Sheet Pile Wall Corrosion Protection

Roen Salvage Company has partnered with Acotec to provide corrosion protection by applying the Humidur coating system on steel sheet pile walls using the DZI Mobile Cofferdam. With the Humidur coating system, we can repair and stop corrosion at a fraction of the cost of replacing the entire steel sheet pile wall.

The DZI Mobile Cofferdam can be quickly transported and set up to be used with almost any steel sheet pile dock wall. Once the mobile cofferdam is in place, a variety of work can occur inside the dewatered cofferdam, for example:

  • Existing corrosion inspection by the owner and/or engineer
  • Pressure washing to remove the corroded layer of steel
  • Welding supplemental steel plates onto severely corroded areas of the wall
  • Sand blasting to prepare the cleaned steel surface for painting
  • Application of the corrosion-stopping Humidur coating; or
  • Bolting on large pre-coated steel protection plates in front of the cleaned existing wall
  • Progress inspections of the sheet pile wall by the owner and/or engineer

Using this Humidur coating system with the DZI Mobile Cofferdam, Roen Salvage can rehabilitate over a mile of steel sheet pile wall in less than six months.

(This article comes from ROEN SALVAGE editor released)

Savings Brought by Screw Piles

Screw piles provide a durable foundation method for all kinds of construction. They offer a cost-effective solution without excavation and insulation work, and installation is fast, whether done mechanically or by rotating into place by hand.

Screw pile foundations are still used extensively, and their usage has extended from lighthouses to rail, telecommunications, roads, and numerous other industries where fast installation is required, or building work takes place close to existing structures.

Most industries use screw pile foundations due to the cost efficiencies and – increasingly – the reduced environmental impact. ‘Screwing’ the foundations in the ground means that there is less soil displacement so excess soil does not need to be transported from the site, saving on transportation costs and reducing the carbon footprint of the project.

Savings brought by screw piles:

  • fast installation saves on labour and equipment costs
  • you can perform the installation yourself using e.g. a crowbar
  • no large-scale earthworks, frost insulation, drainage, or casting and mould work
  • inexpensive to transport and store
  • The carrying capacity provided by the helix saves on pile length
  • almost invariably requires only one site visit
  • light installation equipment
  • the environment stays clean and undamaged

(This article comes from PaaluPiste Oy and Wikipedia editor released)

Introduction to Helical Anchors

Helical anchors have been in use for more than 170 years. In 1838 a lighthouse was built upon helical piers designed by an Irish engineer, Alexander Mitchell. Sporadic use of helical piers has been documented throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries mainly for supporting structures and bridges built upon weak or wet soil.

When hydraulic motors became readily available in the 1960’s, which allowed for easy and fast installation of helical piers, their popularity flourished. Electric utility companies began to use helical piers for tie down anchors on transmission towers and for guy wires on utility poles.

Helical piers are ideal for applications where there is a need to resist both tension and axial compression forces. Some examples of structures having combination forces are metal buildings, canopies and monopole telecommunication tower foundations.

Current uses for helical piers include underpinning foundations for commercial and residential structures, foundation repair, light standards, retaining walls tieback anchors, pipeline and pumping equipment supports, elevated walkways, bridge abutments, and numerous uses in the electric utility industry. Many times helical anchors are the best solution for your foundation repair project due to one of the following factors:

  • Ease of Installation
  • Little to No Vibration
  • Immediate Load Transfer upon Installation
  • Installed Torque Correlates to Capacity
  • Easily Load Tested to Verify Capacity
  • Installs Below Active Soils
  • All Weather Installation
  • Little to No Disturbance to Jobsite

(This article comes from Earth Contact Products editor released)